Last Updated on by SCARS Editorial Team
A Special Report from SCARSSCARS SCARS - Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. A government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization based in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. SCARS supports the victims of scams worldwide and through its partners in more than 60 countries around the world. Incorporated in 2015, its team has 30 years of continuous experience educating and supporting scam victims. Visit www.AgainstScams.org to learn more about SCARS.™ – Society of Citizens Against Relationship ScamsSCARS SCARS - Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. A government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization based in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. SCARS supports the victims of scams worldwide and through its partners in more than 60 countries around the world. Incorporated in 2015, its team has 30 years of continuous experience educating and supporting scam victims. Visit www.AgainstScams.org to learn more about SCARS. Inc.
Every ScamScam A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime - is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. Victim Needs To Read This
Anti-Scam Quackery & The Need For Professionalism
Quackery, Often Synonymous With Many Different Types Of FraudFraud In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain (money or other assets), or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law (e.g., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation) or criminal law (e.g., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities), or it may cause no loss of money, property, or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, for example by obtaining a passport, travel document, or driver's license, or mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A fraud can also be a hoax, which is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim., Is The Promotion Of Fraudulent Or Ignorant Practices
A “Quack” is a “fraudulent or ignorant pretender to professional skill” or “a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, knowledge, qualification or credentials they do not possess; a charlatan or snake oil salesman”. In other words, a Fake!
Common elements of general quackery include questionable recommendations for a range of approaches to everything from healthcare to legal advice, as well as untested or refuted information or treatments for mental conditions, especially for serious diseases such as PTSD or depression. Quackery is often described as “health fraud” with the salient characteristic of aggressive promotion. Except, in this case, it is Anti-Scam Quackery by leading victims to non-professional, incompetent, or incorrect solutions and advice.
Quacks also engage the overt attacking of legitimate professional service providers by name. Quacks tend to view themselves as “pure” providers because they are not encumbered by professional standards or organizations. They are purely interested in the outcome – though in truth they have no idea how to get there.
Anti-Scam Quacks are so numerous that the numbers can almost not be believed. They number in the thousands on Facebook alone.
Some are a single person hiding behind their page, others are small groups of “friends” (meaning victims) that may be well-intentioned but without any real formalization.
Many claim they are just there to see things change, to get awareness or scammers arrested. They even claim they will step away once the goal has been achieved.
Yet in many cases, they actually do more harm than good by leading victims away from real solutions and real support.
Real Victims Support & Assistance
Let’s Describe What Is Real Victims’ Assistance, Support, And Advocacy Actually Is
Victim assistance programs vary significantly but generally provide services to victims as they recover from the crime and proceed through the criminalCriminal A criminal is any person who through a decision or act engages in a crime. This can be complicated, as many people break laws unknowingly, however, in our context, it is a person who makes a decision to engage in unlawful acts or to place themselves with others who do this. A criminal always has the ability to decide not to break the law, or if they initially engage in crime to stop doing it, but instead continues. justice process. Attempts to meet victims’ needs have been forged on two fronts: victims’ rights advocates lobby for and assert the rights of victims to have a primary role in the administration of justice, while community support groupsSupport Groups In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic, such as romance scams. Members with the same issues can come together for sharing coping strategies, to feel more empowered and for a sense of community. The help may take the form of providing and evaluating relevant information, relating personal experiences, listening to and accepting others' experiences, providing sympathetic understanding and establishing social networks. A support group may also work to inform the public or engage in advocacy. They can be supervised or not. SCARS support groups are moderated by the SCARS Team and or volunteers. attempt to address the personal crises that may follow from victimizationVictimization Victimization (or victimization) is the process of being victimized or becoming a victim. The field that studies the process, rates, incidence, effects, and prevalence of victimization is called victimology.. (SCARS engages in both.)
What Should A Victims Assistance Provider Be?
A Victims Assistance provider could be any group or organization that is professionally trained, certified, and registered with their government as a real crime victims’ assistance organization. That would obviously not be a quack.
Worldwide there are only four such organizations that focus on online crime or cybercrimeCybercrime Cybercrime is a crime related to technology, computers, and the Internet. Typical cybercrime are performed by a computer against a computer, or by a hacker using software to attack computers or networks. victims – one in the United States, one in Japan, one in Scandinavia, and one in China. Needless to say that there are thousands of such organizations that help other kinds of crime victims just in the United States alone.
There are crime victim assistance entities that focus on different types of crime – all of them being tax-exempt nonprofit incorporated companies as well as the professionals that work with them (or their volunteers.)
These victims assistance organizations and professionals cover a multitude of different victim types for crimes such as:
- Violent assault survivorsSurvivor A Scam Survivor is a victim who has been able to fully accept the reality of their situation. That they were the victim of a crime and are not to blame. They are working on their emotional recovery and reduction of any trauma either on their own, through a qualified support organization, or through counseling or therapy. And has done their duty and reported the crime to their local police, national police, and on Anyscam.com
- Rape / sexual assault victims
- Child abuse victims
- Human trafficking victims
- Slavery victims
- Cybercrime victims (such as SCARS)
- Drunk driving victims (such as MADD)
- Racism and hate victims
- Terrorism victims
- Holocaust victims
- Genocide victims
- Financial crime victims (which also includes SCARS)
- Insurance and other basic fraud victims
In each type of crime, each victim will have unique needs and requirements. The degree of professionalization will also vary depending on the specifics.
For example, in the case of financial crimes, victims may need the support of forensic accountants and examiners, tax professionals, etc. In the case of insurance fraudInsurance fraud Insurance fraud is any act committed to defraud an insurance process and/or institution. Insurance fraud occurs when a claimant attempts to obtain some benefit or advantage they are not entitled to, or when an insurer knowingly denies some benefit that is due., there would be a need for certified adjusters and attorneys. Each category brings unique requirements for professionalism in the support of victims. Of course, there are also the psychological aspects of supporting these victims as well, and the need for professional licensed counselors and therapists, or support groups.
Supporting these victims varies by each crime category. In the case of most crimes, there are attorneys and other professionals that victims can talk to about the specifics of their case – this is actually a form of support. Law enforcement plays a large role in helping to clarify both the crime and the probable outcomes. Followed by professional mental healthMental health Mental health, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community". According to WHO, mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others". From the perspectives of positive psychology or of holism, mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life and to create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how one defines "mental health". support and/or formalized victims’ support groups. Except in the case of cybercrime victims – they have historically only had amateurs to turn to.
In most countries and U.S. states, most of these professional occupations are highly regulated activities requiring professional or occupational licenses. Failing to have the proper licenses is, in most cases, a crime. In the case of victims assistance, it is similar though not as well developed yet. A majority of U.S. states are exploring professional licensing of victims’ assistance providers and advocates with the need for serious credentials and certifications. Certainly, most local victims’ advocates are required to have professional training before they can support local victims referred to them by law enforcement. Unfortunately, it is not yet universal or enforced. This allows for almost anyone to claim they are a victims’ advocate or crime expert without any formalized training, certification, or even real knowledge. This is the space that the quacks, fakes, or frauds are occupying. At the national level in the United States, the Office of Victims of Crime maintains a registry process of victims assistance provides, as does the National Center for Victims of Crime – to which SCARS is registered.
Of course, the hallmark of the quacks, fakes, or frauds is to talk a good story, hind behind anonymity (in some cases), have no demonstrable organization (meaning they are basically a one-man show – certainly no professional staff), are not a real incorporated entity, or meet any of the other myriad requirements for a real organization. However, real victims advocates on either the local level or larger territory are out there every day putting themselves on the line personally helping real victims – they struggle with the funding needed to perform real work, with the organizational licenses and registrations, and even the liability insurance needed.
Sometimes the line between a genuine intent to help and a quack is more subtle. It has more to do with their deception and defamation of real organizations. For example, there are countless quack and frauds that attack the Red Cross or the Salvation Army or Mothers Against Drunk Driving (or other nonprofits & NGOs). Some of their reasons may be valid, but the fact is that these are real organizations with a long history of professional accomplishments, are accessible and mostly transparent in their operations. Same is true for SCARS.
There is a great irony in that victims are outspoken defenders of quack and fakes and their zeal in attacking any detractor of what they believe in can be extreme. This is also the hallmark of a fake or quack in that their defenders can never really point to a single real accomplishment of the quack, fake, or pretender. Their defense is instead based upon hate, rageRage Anger, also known as wrath or rage, is an intense emotional state involving a strong uncomfortable and non-cooperative response to a perceived provocation, trigger, hurt or threat. About one-third of scam victims become trapped in anger for extended periods of time following a scam. A person experiencing anger will often experience physical effects, such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Some view anger as an emotion that triggers a part of the fight or flight response. Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively, and physiologically. Anger can have many physical and mental consequences. While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them", psychologists point out that an angry person can very well be mistaken because anger causes a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability., and irrational rhetoric. Whereas real organizations have a track record of accomplishments.
What About TraumaTrauma Emotional and psychological trauma is the result of extraordinarily stressful events that shatter your sense of security, making you feel helpless in a dangerous world. Psychological trauma can leave you struggling with upsetting emotions, memories, and anxiety that won’t go away. It can also leave you feeling numb, disconnected, and unable to trust other people. Traumatic experiences often involve a threat to life or safety or other emotional shocks, but any situation that leaves you feeling overwhelmed and isolated can result in trauma, even if it doesn’t involve physical harm. It’s not the objective circumstances that determine whether an event is traumatic, but your subjective emotional experience of the event. The more frightened and helpless you feel, the more likely you are to be traumatized. Trauma requires treatment, either through counseling or therapy or through trauma-oriented support programs, such as those offered by SCARS.?
Emotional trauma is a common element for nearly EVERY victim. Some traumas you never ‘get over’ but you can learn ways to cope. Yet amateur and fake groups have no idea how these processes work or how to competently help. They focus and feed on victims’ angerAnger Anger, also known as wrath or rage, is an intense emotional state involving a strong uncomfortable and non-cooperative response to a perceived provocation, trigger, hurt or threat. About one-third of scam victims become trapped in anger for extended periods of time following a scam. A person experiencing anger will often experience physical effects, such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Some view anger as an emotion that triggers a part of the fight or flight response. Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively, and physiologically. Anger can have many physical and mental consequences. While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them", psychologists point out that an angry person can very well be mistaken because anger causes a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability., denialDenial Denial is a refusal or unwillingness to accept something or to accept reality. Refusal to admit the truth or reality of something, refusal to acknowledge something unpleasant; And as a term of Psychology: denial is a defense mechanism in which confrontation with a personal problem or with reality is avoided by denying the existence of the problem or reality., and depression – often making them worse.
The global system of justice is not a fast process, from the discovery of the crime and before an investigation (if you get one) to prosecution to the incarceration of a perpetrator. The Justice System is deliberately slow at nearly every level. This commonly surprises victims who expect ‘swift justice.’ In many cases, there simply is no justice in the traditional sense.
It is typical for victims to experience secondary trauma. Secondary trauma is emotional pain caused by the people and processes from whom victims seek help. This can happen because of the system’s slowness, incompetencies and just the fact that you are working with humans. But we seek to eliminate or reduce this to the maximum extent possible.
Few will understand the struggle and frustration that victims face. This can include family and close friends. It is helpful for some victims to find others like them for support and understanding, except far too many find it in the form of fake, amateur, and incompetent groups professing to be experts – in other words: “Quacks.”.
Why Talk About This Issue?
In all areas of professionalism, as the need for better care advances, it exposes the fakes, charlatans, imposters, pretenders, and frauds.
This is true in all areas of professional endeavor – from science to engineering to construction to health, and so much more.
In truth, not all are these are fraudulent, some are just sincere people trying to do their best – that was true of medicine back in the early 20th century too. But even the well-intentioned can be incompetent and do harm. That is why we do not allow barbers or apprentices in Medicine any longer – a doctor or nurse must be competently educated, trained, experienced, and licensed.
In our dialogs about the risks and in fact actual dangers of amateur anti-scam groups we are focused on the potential dangers to victims. A scam victim is experiencing (in many cases) serious trauma, but they are seeking the help of people who have no idea what they are doing – who believe they have no liability either. We are trying to elevate the discourse of the subject to both create awareness in victims of the risks of involving themselves with these fake amateur quack anti-scam groups, as well as the increasing need for professional standards and even occupational licensing.
Professionals recognize the need for collaboration and cooperation, instead of alignment with other fakes. Just look at the world of organics for example and how their sphere has rapidly professionalized to exclude fakes form their industry to protect consumers from fraud and deception. As each endeavor becomes more formalize the need to aggregate professionalism increases and the need to call out the fakes, pretenders, and quacks increases. Unfortunately, consumers (or victims) do not always understand this – a person drawing does not care if the lifeguard is certified or if the life-ring was manufactured to industry standards – unless they survive and are injured by the incompetence in the process – then they care.
The Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams in an incorporated tax-exempt nonprofit, that is affiliated or partnered with government, universities, and bodies worldwide. Our leadership holds professional certifications in cybersecurity and cybercrime, as well as victims’ assistance. SCARS identifies its leadership and their actual experience in the subject matter.
Not one of these so-called anti-scam group pretenders (that is not a SCARS member) does or has any of the requisite experience that would be needed.
Victims Ask “Why Are We Not All On The Same Side?”
THE ANSWER IS ACTUALLY NO – WE NOT ALWAYS
In an emergency, anyone can provide care, and in fact, is required to help at some level. If you have a heart attack you would want someone to perform CPR – hopefully, they also have been trained, but enough people have seen it on TV that they could probably help some. Yes, they may cause more harm, but any help is such a situation is better than nothing. Sometimes that is true, sometimes not. For example, you could not want someone on the street to take out a knife and perform open heart surgery (unless they were a surgeon). But once the ambulance arrives and you are taken to the hospital you would demand absolute professional care.
Scam Victims Almost Never Ever Consider This
There is nothing wrong with helping to educate scam victims, as long as it is competent information and real support.
News articles, for example, can be very helpful in providing awareness. However, a mistake that so many groups make is that they do not know what they do not know, and as such either cross the ethical lines or continue to spread urban legends and fake newsFake news Fake news is false or misleading information presented as news. It often has the aim of damaging the reputation of a person or entity, or making money through advertising revenue. However, the term does not have a fixed definition and has been applied more broadly to include any type of false information, including unintentional and unconscious mechanisms, and also by high-profile individuals to apply to any news unfavourable to his/her personal perspectives.. Most of these groups are made up of either victims or true fakes. Some do have a sincere desire to help, some it is all about their anger or self-aggrandizementself-enhancement This refers to the tendency to maintain unrealistically positive self-views about yourself. Many philosophical and religious traditions have considered this egotistical. The aphorism “know thyself” was inscribed in the forecourt of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, and its meaning was described as to “those whose boasts exceed what they are.” Christianity has frowned upon self-aggrandizement or hubris, branding it a cardinal sin. All these cultural and religious proscriptions would invite the conclusion that this is a recipe for maladjustment. Still, most people exaggerate their strengths and downplay their weaknesses..
Unfortunately, online crime or scam victims especially (as a group) rarely consider the competency or even the integrity of the anti-scam groups they frequent and support. This lack of discrimination on their part makes it much harder to help them, it is also a prime reason why only about 30% of scam victims achieve recovery. With more than 50% of scam victims “warehoused” in fake, amateur, or pretender (or in some cases fraudulent) anti-scam groups they are denying themselves their own path to recovery.
Volunteer vs. Professional
We strongly believe in the role of volunteers in Victims’ Assistance and have no desire to see that disappear.
For victims of crime, both professional and volunteers victims advocates play important roles. They help affirm victims’ rights and to provide information and services to victims of crime. Our own victims’ assistance activities are hugely supported by our corps of volunteers.
Organized locally and globally, the starting point is a victim advocate in the jurisdiction of the crime. However, there still needs to be achievable, maintainable, and enforceable standards for both professionals and volunteers.
Seeking Like Minded Professionals
Our organization is proud to represent nearly one million scam victims directly or through our Member Groups. Collectively we reach a million victims a month on the web and social media, yet the challenges and the haters and trolls remain as we expand the boundaries of professionalism in the space. The defamation campaigns by amateur and quack groups that see professionalism as a threat continue month after month and year after year. As more of the public become a victim of scamsScams A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime - is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. and react by believing that they are qualified themselves to save everyone, more of these groups are formed. Of course, we see similar quacks in law, medicine, and conspiracy theories of all kinds – advocates of professional standards are their enemy and must, therefore, be in league with the scammers, evil overlord, or extra-terrestrials (pick on) in their minds.
The Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams has been successful in spite of the amateurs and fakes because we bring professionalism and standards to the practice of supporting online crime victims. We seek like-minded groups and individuals to join with us in the furtherance of professional development for everyone’s collective benefit. We allow membership in our organization for free and encourage professional development and certification as a cause. We have developed a real Code of Conduct for our members and affiliated professionals and also conform to the NOVA, OVA, and NCVC standards and guidelines, as well as undergoing professional) training programs (such as that provided by our partnership with the United States Department of Homeland SecurityDepartment of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. federal executive department (under the President) responsible for public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cybersecurity, and disaster prevention and management. – particularly for Vicarious Trauma training for the continuation of effective support for victims.)
With an estimated 25 million romance scam victims alone worldwide, and over 5 million in the United States, the time has come for more than fakes, amateurs, and quack anti-scam groups – the time has come for competent standards-based support across the board. The time has come for a professional standards body to aid in the establishment of realistic Occupational Licensing requirements throughout the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Europe. For the last year, we have been working in China for the development of such a model in concert with the government of China. Now we need to elevate this requirement across the globe.
We are pleased to be working with organizations worldwide in the creation of such a new Standards Body.
A Little Background
We have extensive experience in the development of standards and supporting regulations.
Our leadership was an active participant and co-author of the U.S. HIPAA and GLBA regulations. In fact, our Chairman was Co-Chair of one of the two HIPAA Standards Bodies that defined the way all healthcare information is transmitted, secured and kept private. Similarly for financial privacy & security. He was a subject matter expert for numerous local, state, and the Federal Government, and worked directly with major international consulting services organizations such as PWC, DynCorp, and others for more than a decade.
Our experience encompassed the cybersecurity standards in the U.S. Department of Defense as well. In 2004 advising on the issues that confronted social media in that day we worked to develop regulations to protect our children online in the form of the Children’s Online Privacy and Protection Act, while both helping to impose sanctions on MySpace and then professionally helping them directly survive the process.
In short, we are not amateurs.
The Need For A New Body
The Society believes that there is now a clear and present need for a new body to establish global occupational licensing standards and requirements in victims assistance. We have already reached out to organizations of similar orientation to join with us in the establishment of such a body.
It is our hope that a new consortium can be fully formed in the coming months to create and evolve such a new regulatory standards body.
If you are part of or represent an organization that has a “dog in this hunt” we encourage you to reach out to us (Standards@AgainstScams.org).
We ask to work together to establish the missing professional operational standards and best practices and work with states and international governments to codify occupational licensing for competent victims assistance on both the professional and volunteer level.
Once the occupational standards are created and applied, then victims assistance for scam victims will be better able to coordinate with law enforcement in both the enforcement of the law and also with governments for more effective financial assistance programs.
It will also make it easier to rectify the obvious flaws in the current social media and web platforms for the safety of the public as a whole.
Today, only SCARS is working on these issues, but once credible licensing is fully in place the consortium that created the new standards will also be able to aggregate the voices of legitimate organizations (such as SCARS) into a single voice for the benefit of victims and the public everywhere.
If you are interested in helping to move this effort forward, either as a direct participating professional or organization, or in government, or as a volunteer, please contact us.
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TAGS: SCARS, Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc., Special Report, Quacks, Fake Groups, Incompetents, Fraudulent Groups, Amateur Groups, Professional, Volunteer, Victims’ Assistance, Victims’ Support, Standards, Regulations, Occupational Licensing,
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FAQ: How Do You Properly Report Scammers?
It is essential that law enforcement knows about scams & scammers, even though there is nothing (in most cases) that they can do.
Always report scams involving money lost or where you received money to:
- Local Police – ask them to take an “informational” police report – say you need it for your insurance
- Your National Police or FBIFBI FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes, including financial fraud. (www.IC3.gov »)
- The SCARS|CDN™ Cybercriminal Data Network – Worldwide Reporting Network HERE » or on www.Anyscam.com »
This helps your government understand the problem, and allows law enforcement to add scammers on watch lists worldwide.
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Visit our NEW Main SCARS Facebook page for much more information about scams and online crime: www.facebook.com/SCARS.News.And.Information »
To learn more about SCARS visit www.AgainstScams.org
Please be sure to report all scammers HERE » or on www.Anyscam.com »
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SCARS, RSN, Romance Scams Now, SCARS|WORLDWIDE, SCARS|GLOBAL, SCARS, Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams, Society of Citizens Against Romance Scams, SCARS|ANYSCAM, Project Anyscam, Anyscam, SCARS|GOFCH, GOFCH, SCARS|CHINA, SCARS|CDN, SCARS|UK, SCARS Cybercriminal Data Network, Cobalt Alert, Scam Victims Support GroupSupport Group In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic, such as romance scams. Members with the same issues can come together for sharing coping strategies, to feel more empowered and for a sense of community. The help may take the form of providing and evaluating relevant information, relating personal experiences, listening to and accepting others' experiences, providing sympathetic understanding and establishing social networks. A support group may also work to inform the public or engage in advocacy. They can be supervised or not. SCARS support groups are moderated by the SCARS Team and or volunteers., are all trademarks of Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Incorporated.
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