(Last Updated On: November 21, 2021)

How Do Individuals Justify and Rationalize their CriminalCriminal A criminal is any person who through a decision or act engages in a crime. This can be complicated, as many people break laws unknowingly, however, in our context, it is a person who makes a decision to engage in unlawful acts or to place themselves with others who do this. A criminal always has the ability to decide not to break the law, or if they initially engage in crime to stop doing it, but instead continues. Behaviors in Online Romance FraudFraud In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain (money or other assets), or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law (e.g., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation) or criminal law (e.g., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities), or it may cause no loss of money, property, or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, for example by obtaining a passport, travel document, or driver's license, or mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A fraud can also be a hoax, which is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim.?

An Academic Study Into Criminal BehaviorBehavior   Behavior / Behavioral Actions Otherwise known as habits, behavior or behavioral actions are strategies to help prevent online exploitation that target behavior, such as social engineering of victims. Changing your behavior is the ONLY effective means to reduce or prevent scams. In West Africa

Presented by SCARSSCARS SCARS - Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. A government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization based in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. SCARS supports the victims of scams worldwide and through its partners in more than 60 countries around the world. Incorporated in 2015, its team has 30 years of continuous experience educating and supporting scam victims. Visit www.AgainstScams.org to learn more about SCARS.

An Academic Study Into West African Criminality

We present this important study to give insights into the mindset of scammers/online criminals in Ghana and by extension the rest of West Africa. 

Understanding how scammers think and justify their actions from a criminology point of view is important in being able to both identify them, arrest them, and successfully convict them. That is why this study is so important to crime prevention professionals around the world.

It should be acknowledged that conducting this research inside of West Africa was not without risks to the study team and authors. We thank them for facing the dragon in his own lair!


How Do Individuals Justify and Rationalize their Criminal Behaviors in Online Romance Fraud?


  • Martin Offei
  • Francis K. Andoh-Baidoo, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
  • Emmanuel Wusuhon Yanibo Ayaburi, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
  • David Asamoah


  • Department of Computer Science, Koforidua Technical University, Koforidua, Ghana
  • Department of Information Systems, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
  • Department of Supply Chain and Information Systems, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana


Online romance fraud (ORF) is a growing concern with such serious negative consequences as financial loss or suicide to the victim. Majority of empirical studies on online romance fraud using attachment, deception, protection motivation and relation theories focus on the victim. While neutralization offers insights into how individuals justify their deviant behaviors, the results have not been consistent in different contexts. In the ORF context, offenders may not only rely on justifying techniques but also rationalize their actions by denying risk both to the victim and the offender. Thus, drawing from the neutralization and denialDenial Denial is a refusal or unwillingness to accept something or to accept reality. Refusal to admit the truth or reality of something, refusal to acknowledge something unpleasant; And as a term of Psychology: denial is a defense mechanism in which confrontation with a personal problem or with reality is avoided by denying the existence of the problem or reality. of risk theories, we develop a research model to explain how online romance offenders justify and rationalize their intended criminal activities. To confirm our theoretical model, we collected 320 responses from individuals at Internet Cafés alleged to be online romance fraud hotspots. Our results highlight the boundary conditions of neutralization techniques in the context of online romance fraud. The study shows that denial of risk, a rationalization mechanism, moderates the relationship between denial of victim, a justification technique, and intention to commit romance fraud. This insight advances the frontiers of neutralization theory. We offer both theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

How do Individuals justify and rationalize their criminal behaviors in online romance fraud?

From the Study.


Rigorous academic studies of online romance fraud (ORF), especially those involving empirical evidence, are still evolving. Widely accepted theories or theoretical frameworks in the literature such as attachment theory, deception, protection motivation theory and relational theory have been used to investigate the online romance fraud phenomenon (Buchanan and Whitty 2014; Ho et al. 2017; Luu et al. 2017; Mosley et al. 2020). Much of the studies focus on the victims and their vulnerabilities. However, understanding why offenders commit such illegal acts without regard to the harm to the victims is evolving and unclear. Online romance fraud offenders use online dating and social networking sites to deceive and defraud their victims in a target nation, mostly Western countries. The offenders take advantage of the victims’ genuine quest for romantic relationships to deceive their victims through false pretense, impersonationImpersonation An impersonator is someone who imitates or copies the behavior or actions of another. There are many reasons for impersonating someone, such as: part of a criminal act such as identity theft, online impersonation scam, or other fraud. This is usually where the criminal is trying to assume the identity of another, in order to commit fraud, such as accessing confidential information or to gain property not belonging to them. Also known as social engineering and impostors., counterfeitingCounterfeiting Counterfeiting is defined as the planned attempt to duplicate a real and authentic article such as a symbol, trademark or even money with the purpose to distort and convince the purchaser or the recipient to believe that he or she is really purchasing or receiving the real article itself. In the ecommerce and financial services industry, this often refers to counterfeit cards and checks., forgery, and other fraudulent representation of facts (Ibrahim 2016). Online fraud has received attention from criminology, information systems, and other disciplines (Buchanan and Whitty 2014; Moore et al. 2009; Williams et al. 2017; Wong et al. 2012). One of the unique features of online romance fraud is that the victim is more driven by the quest for romantic relationship and not the financial reward (Buchanan and Whitty 2014). The romantic relationship distinguishes romance scamScam A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. or romance fraud from any other fraud and for that matter, any other cybercrimesCybercrimes Cybercrime is a crime related to technology, computers, and the Internet. Typical cybercrime are performed by a computer against a computer, or by a hacker using software to attack computers or networks., and therefore demands special attention (Cross 2018). Illegal activities of deceit or extortion of individuals on the dating sites is aided by the ability of the perpetrators to justify their actions due to the way dating sites operate. A troubling aspect of the online romance fraud is that, most of the offenders reside in jurisdictions outside that of the victims. Most perpetrators are usually technically savvy and about college-aged.

In this study, we investigate how individuals employ neutralization techniques to justify online romance fraud prior to committing the crime (Sykes and Matza 1957). Neutralization theory, from criminology, has been employed to explain deviant behaviors in societies and organizations. In proposing the neutralization theory, Sykes and Matza (1957) suggest that, deviants do not generally oppose the law-abiding society but find ways to convince the society that their deviant behavior results from treatment and harm that they have suffered from their environment. They put across a sorry and apologetic disposition to gain sympathy and shield themselves from blameBlame Blame or Blaming is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise. When someone is morally responsible for doing something wrong, their action is blameworthy. By contrast, when someone is morally responsible for doing something right, we may say that his or her action is praiseworthy. Blame imparts responsibility for an action or act, as in that they made a choice to perform that act or action. from the society. Sykes and Matza (1957) refer to these actions as neutralization techniques which are learned by deviants and used as the basis for legitimizing their crimes or victims. A neutralization technique is a temporary insulator that a criminal or an offender uses to absolve themselves from self-blameSelf-Blame Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially at fault for the harm that befell them. SCARS seeks to mitigate the prejudice against victims and the perception that victims are in any way responsible for the actions of offenders or scammers. There is historical and current prejudice against the victims of domestic violence and sex crimes, such as the greater tendency to blame victims of rape than victims of robbery. Scam victims are often blamed by family & friends for the crime. Scam victims also engage in self-blame even though they are not to blame. and from the blame of society in general (Sykes and Matza 1957).

Neutralization techniques as justifications are critical in lessening the effectiveness of social controls. Characteristics of the perpetrators where neutralization may explain delinquent behavior include: 1) feeling of shameShame Shame is an unpleasant self-conscious emotion typically associated with a negative evaluation of the self; withdrawal motivations; and feelings of distress, exposure, mistrust, powerlessness, and worthlessness. or guilt 2) identification of appropriate and inappropriate target 3) avoiding harm to any individual within their community and 4) accepting at least partially dominant social order (Sykes and Matza 1957). It behooves academia and the society in general to understand why an abled college-age individual who might otherwise aspire to productive socially acceptable careers engage in such delinquent behavior as ORF. Our first research question: (i) how does neutralization influence the intention to commit online romance fraud?

This study acknowledges that neutralization techniques alone may not be enough to explain intention to commit crime, since other factors may be at play (Siponen et al. 2012). While neutralization is the basis for forming justifications prior to committing a crime, rationalization can be deployed to masquerade the main motivation after committing the crime.

Rationalization is aimed at making a case for why the actions make sense. In the context of online romance, victim, and offender establish a relationship in which the offender commits time, effort, and in some cases monetary gifts into maintaining the relationship. The victim equally invests same if not more. However, the offenders know ahead of committing the crime that online romance fraud is not only illegal but also has heavy negative consequences. Thus, offenders may rationalize their actions by denying the existence of risk through their confidence in evading law enforcement or that their specific crime is not as bad or harmful as other crimes. Therefore, we postulate that denial of risk perception may interact with the effect of neutralization on intention to commit crime. To address the need to understand the motivation of online romance offender, we focus on the effect of denial of risk and address our second research question: (2) how does denial of risk perception interact with the effect of neutralization on the intention to commit online romance fraud?

Drawing from the neutralization theory (Sykes and Matza 1957) and denial of risk theory (Peretti-Watel 2003), we develop a research model that explains how online romance scammers justify and rationalize their criminal activities.

To empirically test our model, we collected 320 responses from individuals at Internet Cafés alleged to be online romance fraud hotspots. The study results contribute to the cyber fraud literature by complementing the existing criminology theories used to understand deviant behaviors. While prior research has identified the positive effect of denial of responsibility, denial of injury, and denial of victim, a subset of the neutralization techniques, on intention to commit crime, this study finds that their positive effects vary depending on the offender level of denial of risk perception. Thus, this study contributes to building theory about ORF phenomenon and providing boundaries to the neutralization theory. For practical implication, our results show that it may be useful for administrators of online platforms to provide their members at the point of joining the platform information that contains such pointers as levels of over-confidence levels or empathy about of their potential partners. Such pointers illustrate the tendencies to justify or rationalize delinquent intentions. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We present theoretical development and research model highlighting some of the prior relevant studies in the next section. We then discuss our research method in section 3, followed by section 4, which covers our results, findings, and implications.

Essential Tools For Every Scam Victim From SCARS Publishing

Visit shop.AgainstScams.org

Each is based on our SCARS Team’s 31 plus years of experience.

SCARS Website Visitors get an Extra 10% Discount
Use Discount Code “romanacescamsnow” at Checkout

SCARS GREN BOOK - The SCARS STEPS Guide to Scam Victim Recovery

Self-Help Self-Paced Recovery Program Guide


This program is designed to help scam victims struggling to recover on their own and for those who want to understand the overall process. You can be using other resources, such as traumaTrauma Emotional and psychological trauma is the result of extraordinarily stressful events that shatter your sense of security, making you feel helpless in a dangerous world. Psychological trauma can leave you struggling with upsetting emotions, memories, and anxiety that won’t go away. It can also leave you feeling numb, disconnected, and unable to trust other people. Traumatic experiences often involve a threat to life or safety or other emotional shocks, but any situation that leaves you feeling overwhelmed and isolated can result in trauma, even if it doesn’t involve physical harm. It’s not the objective circumstances that determine whether an event is traumatic, but your subjective emotional experience of the event. The more frightened and helpless you feel, the more likely you are to be traumatized. Trauma requires treatment, either through counseling or therapy or through trauma-oriented support programs, such as those offered by SCARS. counselingCounseling Counseling is the professional guidance of the individual by utilizing psychological methods especially in collecting case history data, using various techniques of the personal interview, and testing interests and aptitudes. A mental health counselor (MHC), or counselor, is a person who works with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health. Such persons may help individuals deal with issues associated with addiction and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; and aging. They may also work with "Social Workers", "Psychiatrists", and "Psychologists". SCARS does not provide mental health counseling. or therapy, qualified support groupsSupport Groups In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic, such as romance scams. Members with the same issues can come together for sharing coping strategies, to feel more empowered and for a sense of community. The help may take the form of providing and evaluating relevant information, relating personal experiences, listening to and accepting others' experiences, providing sympathetic understanding and establishing social networks. A support group may also work to inform the public or engage in advocacy. They can be supervised or not. SCARS support groups are moderated by the SCARS Team and or volunteers., or completely independent – on your own!

The SCARS Steps program is a complete program and is provided for the purpose of helping scam victims to overcome this experience. Throughout this SCARS Steps Program, we speak about issues and challenges that a victim may have and help guide them through their recovery. But each person is different and it is important to understand your own reasons for being vulnerable to being scammed.

After the trauma of being scammed, you need to take steps to recover and move on. This may be an alternative to counseling in the short term, but we still encourage you to seek out professional help & support. Throughout this SCARS Steps Program, we speak about issues, challenges, defects, or problems that a victim may have in a generalized way.

The SCARS GREEN BOOK will help you recover from your scam offline and it will always be there when you need it!

Get it here

SCARS SLATE BOOK - A Guide For Families & Friends Of Scam Victims

SCARS SLATE BOOK – Let Us Explain What Happened!

A Guide For Families & Friends Of Scam Victims


This SCARS Publishing book represents a complete guide to help the families and friends understand how these scamsScams A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. work and how to help the victim.

The SCARS Slate Book should be purchased by family and friends to better understand what happened to the victim and the traumatic impact on them. But it can also be shared by the victim so that they do not have to explain to family and friends about the scam. This publication is to help others to help Scam Victims to make it through this traumatic experience and recover.

Each person is different and it is important to understand how relationship scamsRelationship Scam A Relationship Scam is a one-to-one criminal act that involves a trust relationship and uses deception & manipulation to get a victim to give to the criminal something of value, such as money! Click here to learn more: What Is A Relationship Scam? work and why people are vulnerable; to being scammed, how they were lured in, then groomed and manipulated. This understanding is essential in helping them through the process of ending the scam and then on to recovery. The SCARS Slate Book will provide the information necessary to help support a victim through this process.

Get it here

SCARS RED BOOK - Your Personal Scam Evidence & Crime Record Organizer

Your Personal Scam Evidence & Crime Record Organizer


Helps you get and stay organized. This publication is to help Scam Victims organize their crime information. Complete this information before reporting to the police then bring this book with you

Before or after reporting to the police the RED BOOK gives you a dedicated tool to record all the essential facts of this crime. The Victim, the Scammers, the Money, and your Police interactions. Everything that really matters can be easily recorded for your immediate use and for the future!

As we have seen, money recovery/repayment programs can become available years after the scam ends and you need to keep all the details of this crime in case it is needed. We have also seen scammers being extradited to the U.S. and other countries, this will help in the event you testify or give statements, Additionally, this helps you have your information ready to qualify for victims’ benefits, compensation, or aid.

The Official SCARS RED BOOK is your way of recording all the important facts of this crime so that you do not lose essential information, Complete the RED BOOK then put it away with the confidence that you will have it if or when it is needed.

Get it here

SCARS BLUE BOOK - Survivor's Recovery Journal
SCARS LIME BOOK - Wisdom & Motivation for Scam Victims
SCARS CHERRY BOOK - A Guide To Understanding Your Fear
SCARS WORKBOOK - 8 Steps To Improvement
SCARS WORKBOOK - Understanding Self-Blame, Guilt, and Shame
100% of all profit goes to support FREE Scam Victims' Services

See all our books and motivational gifts for scam victims at Shop.AgainstScams.org

100% of all profit goes to help SCARS help more scam victims worldwide.

Your generous purchase allows us to maintain our scam avoidance, support, and recovery services. Please help SCARS and stand proud.

Always Report All Scams – Anywhere In The World To:

U.S. FTCFTC The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government whose principal mission is the enforcement of civil (non-criminal) U.S. antitrust law and the promotion of consumer protection. The FTC can also act as a clearinghouse for criminal reports sent to other agencies for investigation and prosecution. To learn more visit www.FTC.gov or to report fraud visit ReportFraud.FTC.gov at https://reportfraud.ftc.gov/#/?orgcode=SCARS and SCARS at www.Anyscams.com