FraudFraud In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain (money or other assets), or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law (e.g., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation) or criminal law (e.g., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities), or it may cause no loss of money, property, or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, for example by obtaining a passport, travel document, or driver's license, or mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A fraud can also be a hoax, which is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim.’s Dark Matter!

The Universe of ScamsScams A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. Most of Us Never Know About

By PJ Rohall, – a SCARSSCARS SCARS - Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. A government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization based in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. SCARS supports the victims of scams worldwide and through its partners in more than 60 countries around the world. Incorporated in 2015, its team has 30 years of continuous experience educating and supporting scam victims. Visit to learn more about SCARS. Partner Organization

Beyond Your Awareness There Is A Darker, Uglier Side To Scams & Fraud – Here Is One Victim’s Story!

This Is Ana’s Story!

“Ana was emaciated when she arrived at the Brazilian embassy in Cairo.”

She was an amateur volleyball player once upon a time in Sao Paulo, Ana’s tall frame was bent from the hunger, fear, and humiliation she had endured for weeks in a village outside of Beni Suef.

Ana had come to Egypt for love – or, more precisely, for marriage, which was apparently a prerequisite for love. A whirlwind romance brought her from Brazil to a village on the banks of the Nile, where she was quickly wed, signed over power of attorney to her husband, had all her money transferred out of her accounts, and left for weeks to fend for herself in a place where she neither spoke the language nor had money to buy a plane ticket out.

One morning, desperate, Ana fled from the squalid house she’d been living in and begged anyone she could find with a car to take her to Cairo. “Cairo! Cairo!” was all she could communicate until, finally, an older man with a truck motioned to her.

Once in Cairo, she begged people on the sidewalk for directions to the Brazilian embassy. “Brasil! Embaixada!” until someone pointed her to a highrise building overlooking the water.

After having to plead the security guards just to be let in, Ana was asked to wait in a crowded reception. Eventually, she was allowed to speak with an embassy representative who told Ana, coldly, that there wasn’t anything Brazil could do to help.

“We have issued warnings about marriage scams,” the representative said. “There is nothing more we can do to help. You can wait here for a family member to pick you up, if you like.”

The Millions of Ways Fraudsters Ruin People’s Lives

It reads like Kafka, but stories like Ana’s are common. The Brazilian embassy in Cairo has processed a large number of such cases in the last five years.

But this isn’t a story about Egypt, Brazilian scamScam A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. victims, or even marriage scams in general. This is a story about the diversity of fraud that takes place every single day across the world.

Each day, thousands of desperate people encounter scammers, many of them desperate in their own right, and have their lives ruined. It’s the scale and breadth of this suffering that I want to highlight here.

We fraud professionals often have too narrow a view of what scams look like – romance scams, BNPL fraud, new account fraud, etc.

But if we really want to win the war against fraudsters, we need a more holistic perspective. We need to understand the systems and structures in our world that foster desperation, motivate people to commit horrific crimes, and nudge vulnerable people into victimhood.

Local Realities Shape Fraud Typologies

Let’s go back to Ana’s story because it can help us diagram a particular type of romance scam that is both devastating for victims and invisible to many.

Ana, just like millions of single people around the world, had a somewhat active dating profile on a handful of appsApps Applications or Apps An application (software), commonly referred to as an ‘app’ is a program on a computer, tablet, mobile phone or device. Apps are designed for specific tasks, including checking the weather, accessing the internet, looking at photos, playing media, mobile banking, etc. Many apps can access the internet if needed and can be downloaded (used) either for a price or for free. Apps are a major point of vulnerability on all devices. Some are designed to be malicious, such as logging keystrokes or activity, and others can even transport malware. Always be careful about any app you are thinking about installing.. Her work and her friends occupied much of her time, but she found moments to swipe through potential matches here and there. Mostly, though, she’d had bad experiences with dating and tried not to invest too much hope into anyone she matched.

Then, Ali appeared.

Even though they were separated by an ocean and had to communicate via Google Translate, Ana felt an immediate connection with Ali. He appeared to feel the same way because he sent long, passionate messages to her day and night. Ana was a little hesitant about Ali’s passion, but she chalked that up to a linguistic and culture divide.

The Trap

When he floated the idea of marriage 10 days after they’d matched, it seemed rushed, sure, but also reflective of Ali, who clearly was a man who knew what he wanted and didn’t hesitate to go for it.

Ana suggested instead that she fly over to meet him first, but Ali said that was impossible. In Egypt, Ali told her, a single man and a single woman cannot just meet up. It’s not like in Brazil. “We must marry if we are to maintain this love,” was how Google translated his message.

Ana was torn. It seemed wildly irresponsible to agree to marry a man she’d never met – let alone shared a common language – but it seemed equally irresponsible to let an opportunity for love pass her by.

The next morning, she booked a flight for Cairo and made excuses to friends and family that she had found a deal at one of the resorts along the Red Sea.

The Context

We already know that Ali is the scammerScammer A Scammer or Fraudster is someone that engages in deception to obtain money or achieve another objective. They are criminals that attempt to deceive a victim into sending more or performing some other activity that benefits the scammer. in this story. But what motivated Ali? Why would he so thoroughly ruin another person’s life like this?

For money and, if Ali was lucky, a passport.

The people who run scams like this one are not wealthy, nor are they part of a larger criminalCriminal A criminal is any person who through a decision or act engages in a crime. This can be complicated, as many people break laws unknowingly, however, in our context, it is a person who makes a decision to engage in unlawful acts or to place themselves with others who do this. A criminal always has the ability to decide not to break the law, or if they initially engage in crime to stop doing it, but instead continues. organization. They are just ambitious opportunists seeking some combination of money that they can blow, money that can buy them some comfort and financial security, and a passport that allows for more visa-free travel than Egypt’s.

The law in Egypt creates an enticing opportunity for such fraudsters. It’s true what Ali told Ana: They cannot be alone together in Egypt without being married. This is what allows fraudsters to lay their traps. The victim – likely vulnerable and lonely in their lives at home – might decide it’s worth taking this leap of faith, and they arrive in Egypt having talked themselves into a fairytale ending.

The Result

What the victims actually find in Egypt is cruelty.

The new husband takes control of the family’s finances – there are legal, cultural, and religious arguments for why this should be so, if he needs to make those arguments – and thus the victim’s bank accounts. Legally, the victim cannot work. In the best-case scenario, she must rely on the family she has married into for food, clothing, and shelter.

And so the victim is stripped of all agency. She has no money, no one she can trust, no guarantee of safety, not even a linguistic ability to navigate their surroundings.

In some cases, like Ana’s, the scammer simply takes off, leaving the victim – broke financially and broken emotionally – to fend for herself. And when the victim finally musters the courage to seek help, she’s often met with cool indifference.

Now, Scale That Up

Marriage scammers in Egypt account for thousands of ruined lives. But even those victims only represent a tiny fraction of the suffering that happens every day worldwide.

In the Philippines, there are scams that thrive in that country’s local contexts. The same goes for Canada, Austria, Pakistan, Botswana, Argentina and every other country on Earth:

  • There are embassies in those countries’ capitals right now trying to process victims of romance scams.
  • There are police departments in those countries right now fielding reports from people who have had their bank card information stolen.
  • There are financial organizations in those countries right now struggling to assure people that their money is safe.

The scams that impact those countries’ citizens might not map so easily onto scams in other countries. The marriage scams happening in Egypt might not happen in Paraguay, for example, but there are realities in Paraguay that open the door to different fraud typologies.

That’s why it’s useful to think in terms of dark matter. There’s the observable universe of fraud – new account fraud, account takeoverAccount Takeover Account Takeover (ATO) are the unauthorized access of a user’s account in order to steal identity credentials, execute a fraudulent transaction or engage in varying types of abuse., friendly fraudFriendly fraud Friendly fraud is a type of first party fraud. Friendly fraud can take many forms, but typically involves an actual consumer obtaining goods or services from a merchant, then claiming they did not make the purchase, did not receive the goods, or only received a fraction of items, in order to keep the goods or services without paying for them., etc – and then there’s the larger unobservable universe whose scams follow patterns and realities that we don’t recognize.

The Lesson for Fraud Professionals

At the beginning of this article, I suggested a new, broader perspective of fraud was needed. Like many perspective shifts, this one has its roots in humility.

Intellectually speaking, we all have a horizon. Each of us can only conceive of a finite number of scams, cons, financial crimes or ways that another human being can be exploited.

But the world is much, much bigger than even our imaginations.

The ways people scam and get scammed depend on local contexts and local realities in which most of us have no fluency. So, we cannot anticipate all the permutations of fraud that will emerge from any given place.

To fight fraud at the scale it takes place, then, our own perspectives need to account for those blind spots.

I think developing such a perspective starts with a realization that we live in a world that both encourages crime and cruelty, and continues to produce scared, vulnerable people who can be lured into one kind of scam or another.

Our job is to protect the vulnerable, stop the criminals and keep in mind that both groups are products of the same reality.

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