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SCARSSCARS SCARS - Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. A government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization based in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. SCARS supports the victims of scams worldwide and through its partners in more than 60 countries around the world. Incorporated in 2015, its team has 30 years of continuous experience educating and supporting scam victims. Visit www.AgainstScams.org to learn more about SCARS.™ Guide: Deepfake

The History & Definition Of Deepfake

What Is Deepfake?

Deepfake, a variation from “deep learning” and “fake”, is an artificial intelligenceArtificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. Machine learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence.-based human image synthesis technique. It is used to combine and superimpose existing images and videos onto source images or videos using a machine learningMachine learning Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence. Machine learning has the capacity to learn over time without being explicitly programmed. It can ingest a large amount of data and detect patterns and anomalies at scale. Supervised machine learning models are trained on a set of labels, while unsupervised machine learning does not require labeled data. technique called a “generative adversarial network” (GAN). The combination of the existing and source videos results in a fake video that shows a person or persons performing an action at an event that never occurred in reality.

Such fake videos can be created to, for example, show a person performing sex acts they never took part in or can be used to alter the words or gestures a politician uses to make it look like that person said something they never did. Because of these capabilities, deepfakes may be used to create fake celebrity pornographic videos or revenge porn. Deepfakes can also be used to create fake newsFake news Fake news is false or misleading information presented as news. It often has the aim of damaging the reputation of a person or entity, or making money through advertising revenue. However, the term does not have a fixed definition and has been applied more broadly to include any type of false information, including unintentional and unconscious mechanisms, and also by high-profile individuals to apply to any news unfavourable to his/her personal perspectives. and malicious hoaxes.

Deepfake Pornography

Deepfake pornography surfaced on the Internet in 2017, particularly on Reddit, and has been banned by sites including Reddit, Twitter, and Pornhub. In autumn 2017, an anonymous Reddit user under the pseudonym “Deepfakes” posted several porn videos on the Internet. The first one that captured attention was the Daisy Ridley deepfake. It was also one of the more known deepfake videos and a prominent feature in several articles. Another one was a Deepfake simulation of Wonder Woman actress Gal Gadot having sex with her step-brother, while others were of actresses like Emma Watson, Katy Perry, Taylor Swift or Scarlett Johansson. The scenes were not real, having been created with artificial intelligence. They were debunked a short time later.

As time went on, the Reddit community fixed many bugs in the faked videos, making it increasingly difficult to distinguish fake from true content. Non-pornographic photographs and videos of the actresses, which are readily available online, were used as training data for the software. The Deepfake phenomenon was first reported in December 2017 in the technical and scientific section of the magazine Vice, leading to its widespread reporting in other media.

Scarlet Johansson, a frequent subject of deepfake porn, spoke publicly about the subject to The Washington Post in December 2018. In a prepared statement, she expressed concern about the phenomenon, describing the internet as a “vast wormhole of darkness that eats itself.” However, she also stated that she won’t attempt to remove any of her deepfakes due to her belief that they don’t affect her public image and that differing laws across countries and the nature of internet culture make any attempt to remove the deepfakes “a lost cause”; she believes that while celebrities like herself are protected by their fame, deepfakes pose a grave threat to women of lesser prominence who could have their reputations damaged by depiction in involuntary pornography or revenge porn.

In the United Kingdom, producers of deepfake material can be prosecuted for harassment but there are calls to make Deepfake a specific crime;[13] in the United States, where charges as varied as identity theftIdentity Theft Identity theft is when someone uses another person's personal identifying information, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. In both the U.K. and the United States it is the theft of personally identifiable information. Identity theft deliberately uses someone else's identity as a method to gain financial advantages or obtain credit and other benefits, and perhaps to cause other person's loss. The person whose identity has been stolen may suffer adverse consequences, especially if they are falsely held responsible for the perpetrator's actions. Personally identifiable information generally includes a person's name, date of birth, social security number, driver's license number, bank account or credit card numbers, PINs, electronic signatures, fingerprints, passwords, or any other information that can be used to access a person's financial resources., cyberstalking, and revenge porn have been pursued, the notion of a more comprehensive statute has also been explored.

Deepfake In Politics

Deepfakes have been used to misrepresent well-known politicians on video portals or chatrooms. For example, the face of the Argentine President Mauricio Macri was replaced by the face of Adolf Hitler, and Angela Merkel’s face was replaced with Donald Trump’s. In April 2018, Jordan Peele and Jonah Peretti created a deepfake using Barack Obama as a public service announcement about the danger of deepfakes. In January 2019, KCPQ aired a deepfake of Trump during his Oval Office address, mocking his appearance and skin color.

Deepfake Software

In January 2018, a desktop application called FakeApp was launched. The app allows users to easily create and share videos with faces swapped. The app uses an artificial neural network and the power of the graphics processor and three to four gigabytes of storage space to generate the fake video. For detailed information, the program needs a lot of visual material from the person to be inserted in order to learn which image aspects have to be exchanged, using the deep learning algorithm based on the video sequences and images.

The software uses the AIAI Artificial intelligence (AI) is wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. Machine learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence.-Framework TensorFlow of Google, which among other things was already used for the program DeepDream. Celebrities are the main targets of such fake sex videos, but some other people are also affected. In August 2018, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley published a paper introducing a fake dancing app that can replace a child with an expert dancer using AI.

Deepfakes In Fiction

The phenomena of deepfakes and fake celebrity pornography are explored in the novel Epiphany Jones by Michael Grothaus. The novel is a literary thriller, social satire, and dark comedy about America’s obsession with sex, celebrity, and the internet, which explores a pornography addict’s unwilling relationship with a woman who thinks she can speak to God and their entanglement with sex traffickers that cater to the Hollywood elite. The main protagonist of the novel, Jerry Dresden, suffers from an addiction to fake pornography of celebrities. Fakes of specific celebrities mentioned in the novel include Natalie Portman, Scarlet Johansson, Halle Berry, Angelina Jolie, Kate Beckinsale, and the Pussycat Dolls. Additionally, fakes of deceased celebrities including Judy Garland and Audrey Hepburn are mentioned in the novel.

Criticisms Of Deepfake

Abuses and Potential Abuses

The Aargauer Zeitung says that the manipulation of images and videos using artificial intelligence could become a dangerous mass phenomenon. However, the falsification of images and videos is even older than the advent of video editing software and image editing programs; in this case, it is the realism that is a new aspect.

It is also possible to use Deepfake for targeted hoaxes and revenge porn.

Effects On Credibility And Authenticity

Another effect of Deepfake is that it can no longer be distinguished whether the content is targeted (e.g. satire) or genuine. AI researcher Alex Champandard has said everyone should know how fast things can be corrupted today with this technology, and that the problem is not technical one, but rather one to be solved by trust in information and journalism. The primary pitfall is that humanity could fall into an age in which it can no longer be determined whether the depicted media corresponds to the truth.

Internet Reaction To Deepfake

Some websites, such as Twitter and Gfycat, announced that they would delete Deepfake content and blockBlock Blocking is a technical action usually on social media or messaging platforms that restricts or bans another profile from seeing or communicating with your profile. To block someone on social media, you can usually go to their profile and select it from a list of options - often labeled or identified with three dots ••• its publishers. Previously, the chat platform Discord blocked a chat channel with fake celebrity porn videos. The pornography website, Pornhub, also plans to block such content; however, it has been reported that the site has not been enforcing its ban. At Reddit, the situation initially remained unclear until the subreddit was suspended on February 7, 2018, due to the policy violation of “involuntary pornography”. In September 2018, Google added “involuntary synthetic pornographic imagery” to its ban list, allowing anyone to request the block of results of their real or fake nudes.

The Effect In Romance ScamsScams A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. Of Deepfake

The impact of using Deepfake videos in the deception associated with Romance Scams and other types of Socially Engineered Cyberfraud are expected to be massive. These videos will not only allow a whole new level of stolen identities and impersonationImpersonation An impersonator is someone who imitates or copies the behavior or actions of another. There are many reasons for impersonating someone, such as: part of a criminal act such as identity theft, online impersonation scam, or other fraud. This is usually where the criminal is trying to assume the identity of another, in order to commit fraud, such as accessing confidential information or to gain property not belonging to them. Also known as social engineering and impostors. but will also allow the scammers to convince victims of virtually any false story.

They are expected to allow for recorded messages, prerecorded chats, and a whole range of uses in creating fake social media identities.

Because of the “apparent” authenticity of the Deepfake produced video content, almost no consumer will be fully prepared to be able to tell the difference between the Deepfake and real videos.

Deepfake videos will likely increase the number of new victims because those who would normally not be susceptible to scams will now be.

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SCARS the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Incorporated

 
SCARS™ Team

A SCARS Division
Miami Florida U.S.A.

 

TAGS: Deepfake, Deep fake, AI Created Video, Face Swapping Tech, Impersonation Videos, Identity Stealing Videos, AI Produced Videos, artificial intelligence-based human image synthesis technique, generative adversarial network, videos using artificial intelligence,


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