Modern Nigerian Scammer Slang Language

Modern Nigerian Scammer Slang Language

(Last Updated On: August 5, 2022)

Modern Nigerian ScammerScammer A Scammer or Fraudster is someone that engages in deception to obtain money or achieve another objective. They are criminals that attempt to deceive a victim into sending more or performing some other activity that benefits the scammer. Slang Language

How Scammers Operate

A SCARSSCARS SCARS - Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. A government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization based in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. SCARS supports the victims of scams worldwide and through its partners in more than 60 countries around the world. Incorporated in 2015, its team has 30 years of continuous experience educating and supporting scam victims. Visit www.AgainstScams.org to learn more about SCARS. Insight

Scammers Are Known For Developing Their Own Slang, But It Has Gone From Just A Few Words To Almost A Language

As part of the strategies developed to ‘institutionalize’ scammers and their illicitillicit Illicit means something that is not legally permitted or authorized under the law; unlicensed; unlawful. It can also mean disapproved of or not permitted for moral or ethical reasons. business, and evade the punitive hand(s) of the Nigerian and international law enforcement agencies, cyber scammers in Nigeria have devised various strategies, including the deployment of anti-language and slangy expressions in their transactional and social interaction.

Studies on cybercrimeCybercrime Cybercrime is a crime related to technology, computers, and the Internet. Typical cybercrime are performed by a computer against a computer, or by a hacker using software to attack computers or networks. in the Nigerian context have largely addressed the phenomenon from the sociological, economical and information technological perspectives with little attention paid to it from a linguistic perspective. Therefore, this study investigates the linguistic strategies employed by cyber scammers in Southwestern Nigeria in their social and transactional interaction.

Findings reveal slang coinages and overlexicalisation, and relexicalization (semantic extensions) are anti-language phenomena characterizing cyber scammers’ language in the region.

In other words, scammers are inventing their own language or terminology in their work and interpersonal or organizational relationships.

The full PDF of the study is below, but here are some of the important findings!

Types Of CybercrimesCybercrimes Cybercrime is a crime related to technology, computers, and the Internet. Typical cybercrime are performed by a computer against a computer, or by a hacker using software to attack computers or networks. In Nigeria

Nigeria’s cybercrimes include cloning of websites, false representations, Internet purchase and other e–commerce kinds of fraudFraud In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain (money or other assets), or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law (e.g., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud or recover monetary compensation) or criminal law (e.g., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities), or it may cause no loss of money, property, or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, for example by obtaining a passport, travel document, or driver's license, or mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A fraud can also be a hoax, which is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim..

The commonest forms of cybercrimes in Nigeria are financial fraud, cloning of electronic mails, identity theftIdentity Theft Identity theft is when someone uses another person's personal identifying information, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. In both the U.K. and the United States it is the theft of personally identifiable information. Identity theft deliberately uses someone else's identity as a method to gain financial advantages or obtain credit and other benefits, and perhaps to cause other person's loss. The person whose identity has been stolen may suffer adverse consequences, especially if they are falsely held responsible for the perpetrator's actions. Personally identifiable information generally includes a person's name, date of birth, social security number, driver's license number, bank account or credit card numbers, PINs, electronic signatures, fingerprints, passwords, or any other information that can be used to access a person's financial resources. (which often manifests or comes in form of emails emanating from impostors claiming to be representing certain financial institutions and requesting customers to supply certain sensitive information about their accounts to avoid their accounts being blocked, thus making transactions impossible) credit card theft, cyber harassment, fraudulent electronic mail, cyber laundering, malwareMalware Short for "malicious software," this term means computer viruses and other types of programs that cybercriminals use to disrupt or access your computer, typically with the aim of gathering sensitive files and accounts., and cloning of websites.

Prevalent in Nigeria include:

  • Yahoo attack, which involves the use of e-mail address-harvesting devices to obtain information about the prospective victim’s e-mail address(es) from the Internet access points, with the intention of sending such scamScam A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. messages;
  • hacking which has to do with the perpetrator breaking the security codes of financial institutions or organizations for e-commerce,
  • funds point cards and e-marketing products sites;
  • software piracy (illegal reproduction and distribution of software applicationsApplications Applications or Apps An application (software), commonly referred to as an ‘app’ is a program on a computer, tablet, mobile phone or device. Apps are designed for specific tasks, including checking the weather, accessing the internet, looking at photos, playing media, mobile banking, etc. Many apps can access the internet if needed and can be downloaded (used) either for a price or for free. Apps are a major point of vulnerability on all devices. Some are designed to be malicious, such as logging keystrokes or activity, and others can even transport malware. Always be careful about any app you are thinking about installing., games, and movies);
  • malware dissemination,
  • phishing (cloning of products and e-commerce sites/pages with the aim of defrauding unsuspecting victims);
  • spoofingSpoofing Spoofing occurs when a caller maliciously transmits false caller ID information to increase the likelihood that you'll answer. Scammers often spoof local numbers, private companies, government agencies and other institutions. It can also apply to pretending to be an email address, or through other media. (the process of having a computer on a network to operate like another, usually one with exceptional access rights, so as to access information on the other systems on the network);
  • cyber plagiarism (stealing other peoples’ ideas via the Internet public domains);
  • cyberstalking (in which the fraudsterFraudster A Scammer or Fraudster is someone that engages in deception to obtain money or achieve another objective. They are criminals that attempt to deceive a victim into sending more or performing some other activity that benefits the scammer. does a follow-up on the unsuspecting victim by sharing emails and entering the chat rooms frequently with them);
  • cyber defamation (in which the scam perpetrator sends e-mails containing defamatory contents to people related to the victim or posts such on a website);
  • salami attack (a technique through which small amounts of assets are removed from a larger pool. The stolen assets are removed one slice at a time (Hassan et al, 2012, p. 627).

Of course, there is more, with romance scamsScams A Scam is a confidence trick - a crime -  is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust through deception. Scams or confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïveté, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, or greed and exploiting that. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct ... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators ('con men' - criminals) at the expense of their victims (the 'marks')". A scam is a crime even if no money was lost. and BEC scams having the highest priority and profitability.

Anti-language

What is this?

At certain times and places we come across special forms of language generated by some portion of a subset of society – kind of an anti-society; these we may call “anti-languages.” An anti-language serves to create and maintain social structure through conversation, just as an everyday language does; but the social structure is of a particular kind, in which certain elements are strongly foregrounded. This gives to the anti-language a special character in which metaphorical modes of expression are the norm; patterns of this kind appear at all levels, phonological, lexico grammatical, and semantic. The study of anti-languages offers further insights into the relation between language and social structure, and into the way in which text functions in the realization of social contexts
(Halliday, 1976: 1)

We provide this so that victims may be watchful for these terms in the course of their conversations with these criminals!

Table 1. Initialisms in cyber scammers’ language

Item Antilanguage/Slangy expression Source Language Conventional meaning Yahoo business Usage
1 TF English Transfer
2 MO English Money order Money order
3 LR English Liberty reserved Liberty reserved (This is a mode of payment).
4 MTCN English Money Transfer Control Number This is an acronym for Money Transfer Control Number
5 CC English Credit card
6 O G English Original Gangster
7 FMT English Format

Table 2. Coinage in cyber scammers’ language

Item Anti-language/Slangy expression Source Language Conventional meaning Yahoo Business Usage
1 Bad market English This refers to an unsuccessful business attempt, especially when a prospect detects the pranks of the yahoo boys and withdraws from a proposed transaction with them.
2 Jonzing Nigerian

Pidgin

(NP)

This is used when a prospect/target victim has discovered the pranks of the yahoo boys but pretends to play along.
3 Ọká ti fo/ Iṣẹ́ ti já Yoruba This is a Yoruba expression that means “the secret has leaked”. This is usually used when a business plan is foiled, especially when it involves the intervention of the security agency.
4 Grinding English Grinding is an adjective in English usually used to qualify poverty. Browsing/ chatting online with a prospective victim “maga”.
5 Eke NP  – It means police in yahoo boys’ parlance
6 Maye Female victim (mugùn)
7 Maga Male victim (mugun)
8 Múgùn Victim, male or female
9 Ọpata NP Nonsense
10 Noke Defraud
11 Yawa NP Trouble Trouble
12 Gba control Codemixed Yoruba-

English

Hit the jackpot
13 Wire English In English, to ‘wire’ is to transfer currency from one What yahoo boys have done here is to reduplicate the term wire to coin their own expression wire which has an entirely different meaning
account to another, especially when it involves international transactions. from the word ‘wire’ in the general sense. In this context, wire is hacking into (international) bank websites in order to make use of the code for illegal withdrawals and transactions (through pickers). This practice is not limited to banks; it is also extended to multinationals and international organizations.
14 Wash English Generally, Nigerians wash dirty items such as clothes, used, plates, etc. Fake currency. This process also involves reduplication
15 G-boy/G-nigga English Yahoo boy/cyber scammer
16 Gbẹ́nusi Yoruba This has no conventional meaning in the Yoruba language, except when used as part of a sentence; for instance, Gbe enu si  microphone yen

‘draw your mouth close to the microphone

The imperative mono-lexical sentence in cyber scam parlance means ‘celebrate or throw a big party after a successful deal’.
17 Thugger Yahoo boy
18 Gbé pósí Yoruba Carry casket To celebrate (usually after a successful deal). This is usually done at parties in clubhouses, pubs, and relaxation centers
19 Come and marry English ‘Come and marry’ is a concept in yahoo business where the scammer pretends to be in love with the suspect (usually a foreigner) and promises marriage to him/her with the intention of defrauding him/her
20 Sáná wọlé Yoruba Begin the party with fireworks. The expression is used by Yahoo boys at parties
21 Ṣáṣẹ́ Yoruba Browse all through the night, searching for clients (prospective maga or mugu)
22 Come and carry English This phrase is employed in the context where an unsuspecting victim has been deceived into paying for goods or items that do not exist
23 HackerHacker A computer hacker is a computer expert who uses their technical knowledge to achieve a goal or overcome an obstacle, within a computerized system by non-standard means. Though the term hacker has become associated in popular culture with a security hacker – someone who utilizes their technical know-how of bugs or exploits to break into computer systems and access data which would otherwise be unavailable to them – hacking can also be utilized by legitimate figures in legal situations. For example, law enforcement agencies sometimes use hacking techniques in order to collect evidence on criminals and other malicious actors. This could include using anonymity tools (such as a VPN, or the dark web) to mask their identities online, posing as criminals themselves. Likewise, covert world agencies can employ hacking techniques in the legal conduct of their work. Oppositely, hacking and cyber-attacks are used extra- and illegally by law enforcement and security agencies (conducting warrantless activities), and employed by State actors as a weapon of both legal and illegal warfare. ìkà Codemixing of English-

Yoruba

An expert hacker
24 Balling English Spending money lavishly
25 Baller English A yahoo boy who spends money lavishly
26 Owó afẹ́fẹ́ Yoruba Money made from cyber scam
27 sha prapra Original, confirmed, authentic
28 Sakamanje Lie/scam
29 Èkélébè Police
30 Sayé Yoruba Enjoy/ lavish money
31 Wọ́ke Yoruba To gain illicit access to the codes on a prospective victim’s credit card, with the intention of using same to perpetrate illegal money transfer, withdrawal or any other fraudulent act
32 Home boy English An amateur yahoo boy who is just learning the ropes
33 Body IP English Body Insurance Policy: Voodoo, charm
34 Westy English Western Union This word is derived from the expression Western Union through a morphological process called blending. This is the means through which yahoo boys claim whatever money has been deposited into their account by victims (maga).
35 Akante Account
36 Lappy Laptop, coined from the word laptop via a clipping
37 Gbéra Yoruba Arise Wise up (used to encourage fellow yahoo boys to intensify their efforts or up their scam skills or practices)
38 Jápa Yoruba run away
39 Ebelesu Yoruba Street boy
40 Lamgbe Yoruba Someone that is slow/foolish in nature, is usually used to describe a victim that falls easily
41 Kizo To stick to.., used to describe a situation where a yahoo boy is determined to stick to a particular victim until he finally succeeds in achieving his aim. This is in view of the fact that many ‘victims’ can be very difficult to dupe.
42 Lamba Lies or false stories narrated by a scammer to win the trust or confidence of the prospective victim
43 Omo beta Yoruba/English code mixed A nice yahoo fellow (perhaps due to his willingness to help others with proceeds from a ‘deal’)
44 Azza Account number
45 Saint Sami-Ganja English/unknown code-mixing A very successful yahoo boy
46 Gbẹ́sẹ̀ kúrò lóri wire yẹn Yoruba/English Remove leg     from wire Avoid a/the risky move (usually as a warning statement to a fellow yahoo boy perceived to be threading a dangerous path) or seen to be after a ‘client’ suspected to be smarter or can easily initiate their arrest process if he/she is duped
47 Ijoba wire Yoruba/English A yahoo clique/group
48 Science man English A native/witch doctor
49 Ká pátá[1] Yoruba A new practice among yahoo boys in which ladies’ pants and men’s boxers are being stolen for ritual purposes. This is also known as Free yahoo
50 System boy English Yahoo boy
[1] This is a new phase in yahoo yahoo practice, following the stage of feces eating, the physical killing of human beings to boost ‘business’ by yahoo boys. From the information gathered, the pants and boxers stolen are used for voodoo or charms that boost yahoo business while the fellows whose pants/boxers are stolen die mysteriously.

Table 3. Semantic extension in cyber scammers’ anti-language

Item Anti-language/Slangy expression Source Language Conventional meaning Yahoo Business Usage
1 Ọká Yoruba In Yoruba, ọká is a type of snake, that is slow to bite but very deadly when it does. In Yahoo business, it means secret
2 Hammer English  to hit or kick something with a lot of force This means a jackpot, a “business” boom. Yahoo boys use this expression when they have just recorded a success in their business.
3 Àpá Yoruba The mark of an old wound/scar The digits on a credit card.
4 Bombing English To destroy something by exploding a

bomb inside it

This is the process of sending different messages to different “maga/maye” by using bulk sms. Eg Dear Customer, your ATM has been blocked. To reactivate it, please call 000000
5 Ewé Yoruba This is a Yoruba word that means “leaf”. However, in the context of the yahoo business, this is used to refer to a cheque.
6 Format English The way in which information is arranged and stored on a computer Series of e-mails specially prepared to be sent to prospective victims. It contains lies and falsehoods, systematically package to deceive unsuspecting victims. This could even come in form of SMS (Short message service).
7 Yoruba In Yoruba, ‘Já’ means cut, used when an item like a rope cuts. This in yahoo business means “Fail”, hence such expressions as “iṣẹ ti já” .This literarily means “it has failed”. This is used when a business plan fails or a prospective victim discovers the pranks of yahoo boys.
8 Log-in English Log-in in English implies entering one’s details to have access to one’s account, usually a mail account. In yahoo, this implies a stolen username and password details.
9 All night English All night in Nigerian English (NE) refers to Vigil Night browsing
10 Loader English One who loads One who deposits/pays fake currency or cheque into a victim’s account
12 Ọmọ ọpẹ́ Yoruba Ope’s child A highly successful yahoo boy
13 Owó ọpẹ́ Yoruba Ope’s money or thanksgiving money A sum of money (made through yahoo yahoo) that puts a smile on the face of the
14 Àgbà awo Yoruba Chief priest/ a senior (occult) iniate A senior fellow in cybercrime business
15 Run down English A detailed report  A reduction in the size or quality of

something

Reducing the worth of a yahoo boy
16 Legit English Legitimate In the parlance of yahoo boys, Legit is a derivation from the word ‘legitimate’. Yahoo boys use this term to describe their illegal activities as being legal or legitimate. They also use it to express the authenticity of the information they have about clients. This is derived from clipping
17 Blow English The word blow has many meanings in English none of which includes the one expressed by cyber scammers in Nigeria. Become successful. Used to describe a situation where a yahoo boy has suddenly recorded a business success. It is common to hear expressions such as ‘mo fẹ bloẃ ” I want to make it big
18 Billing English Spelling out the amount to be paid for a service rendered or an item bought. Demanding for money from a victim
19 Jazz English A genre   of music Charm
20 Dye English Change the color of a clothing material Disappoint/dupe/scam
21 Client English One to whom a service is rendered A person planned to be duped or scammed
22 Address English Description of a place where one resides or works, etc Bank account (details)
23 Hottie hottie English One who is very

sexually attractive

In yahoo parlance, the word is reduplicated to derive hottie hottie. It refers to a yahoo boy that is currently doing well in the business. The synonym for this phrase in

yahoo parlance is ọmọ better (a better child)

24 Pósí Yoruba Casket A container, usually a wooden box, in which drinks are brought to yahoo boys at clubhouses. This lexical item is otherwise called ‘àpótí ọrọ’̀ ‘the box of wealth’ as a form of overlexicalisation
25 Logistics English The careful organization of a complicated activity so that it happens in a successful and effective way The gradual process by which funds are illegally moved from one account to another.

Table 4. Semantic extension

Item Anti-language/Slangy expression Source Language Conventional meaning Yahoo Business Usage
1 Alibaba Alibaba is the nickname of a popular Nigerian stand-up comedy Getting information about wealthy foreigners, particularly about their credit card details in order to use it order for goods from above
2 Papa Ajasco Papa Ajasco is a popular name in the Nigerian entertainment industry. He is one of the major characters in a regular TV soap opera produced by Wale

Adenuga (WAP)

Special Anti-robbery Squad (SARS) a unit of the Nigeria Police specially saddled with the task of handling cases involving hardened criminals

HERE IS THE COMPLETE STUDY THIS WAS TAKEN FROM

– – –

Scammer Language AjayiVol13Issue2IJCC2019

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SCARS, SCARS|INTERNATIONAL, SCARS, SCARS|SUPPORT, SCARS, RSN, Romance Scams Now, SCARS|INTERNATION, SCARS|WORLDWIDE, SCARS|GLOBAL, SCARS, Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams, Society of Citizens Against Romance Scams, SCARS|ANYSCAM, Project Anyscam, Anyscam, SCARS|GOFCH, GOFCH, SCARS|CHINA, SCARS|CDN, SCARS|UK, SCARS|LATINOAMERICA, SCARS|MEMBER, SCARS|VOLUNTEER, SCARS Cybercriminal Data Network, Cobalt Alert, Scam Victims Support GroupSupport Group In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic, such as romance scams. Members with the same issues can come together for sharing coping strategies, to feel more empowered and for a sense of community. The help may take the form of providing and evaluating relevant information, relating personal experiences, listening to and accepting others' experiences, providing sympathetic understanding and establishing social networks. A support group may also work to inform the public or engage in advocacy. They can be supervised or not. SCARS support groups are moderated by the SCARS Team and or volunteers., SCARS ANGELS, SCARS RANGERS, SCARS MARSHALLS, SCARS PARTNERS, are all trademarks of Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc., All Rights Reserved Worldwide

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