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SCARS™ Online Safety: Identifying Hoaxes and Urban Legends

Chain Letters, Yes And Share Posts – Are Familiar To Anyone With An Email Or Social Media Account!

Whether they are sent or posted by strangers or well-intentioned friends or family members. Try to verify the information before following any instructions or passing the message along.

Why Are Chain Letters A Problem?

The most serious problem is from chain letters that mask viruses or other malicious activity. But even the ones that seem harmless may have negative repercussions if you forward them:

  • They consume bandwidth or space within the recipient’s inbox
  • You force people you know to waste time sifting through the messages and possibly taking time to verify the information
  • You are spreading hype and, often, unnecessary fear and paranoia

What Are Some Types Of Chain Letters?

There are two main types of chain letters:

  • Hoaxes – Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the operating system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to send money or personal information. Phishing attacks could fall into this category.
  • Urban legends – Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group. Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted bandwidth and time.

What About Share Posts?

What we call “Share Posts” are posts that ask you to endlessly forward or share posts on social media.

They have all the same issues of chain letters with one important difference – the originator of the posts can frequently see the identities of everyone that shares it, likes it, and comments on it. So there are ideal honey pots to identify prospect scam or cybercrime victims as well.

How Can You Tell If An Email Or Post Is A Hoax Or Urban Legend?

Some messages are more suspicious than others, but be especially cautious if the message has any of the characteristics listed below. These characteristics are just guidelines – not every hoax or urban legend has these attributes, and some legitimate messages may have some of these characteristics as well:

  • It suggests tragic consequences for not performing some action
  • It promises money or gift certificates for performing some action
  • It offers instructions or attachments claiming to protect you from a virus that is undetected by anti-virus software
  • It claims it’s not a hoax
  • There are multiple spelling or grammatical errors, or the logic is contradictory
  • There is a statement urging you to forward the message
  • It has already been forwarded multiple times (evident from the trail of email headers in the body of the message)

Checking For Truth – Identifying Fakes & Urban Legends

If you want to check the validity of an email, there are some websites that provide information about hoaxes and urban legends:

When it comes to Urban Legends related to scams and scamming we have a section devoted to this as well – click here for the SCARS articles on Scam Urban Legends.

Contributing Authors

United States Department of Homeland Security and Dr. Tim McGuinness.


SCARS the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Incorporated


A SCARS Division
Miami Florida U.S.A.



TAGS:  USDHS, Scams, Urband Legends, Chaim Email, Share Posts, Fakes, Honey Pot, Social Engineering, Hoaxes,



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FAQ: How Do You Properly Report Scammers?

It is essential that law enforcement knows about scams & scammers, even though there is nothing (in most cases) that they can do.

Always report scams involving money lost or where you received money to:

  1. Local Police – ask them to take an “informational” police report – say you need it for your insurance
  2. Your National Police or FBI ( »)
  3. The SCARS|CDN™ Cybercriminal Data Network – Worldwide Reporting Network HERE » or on »

This helps your government understand the problem, and allows law enforcement to add scammers on watch lists worldwide.

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SCARS™ Online Safety: Identifying Hoaxes and Urban Legends 1


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SCARS™™ is the official victims' education & support publication of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams™ Incorporated [SCARS]™ It is edited and published by the SCARS Team. SCARS is a government registered crime victims' assistance & crime prevention nonprofit organization, based in Miami Florida U.S.A. Its founder has been involved in combating online fraud since 1991. SCARS™ - the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc. is dedicated to supporting scam victims worldwide, educating the public to avoid scams, and advocating victim's causes and changing government and law enforcement attitudes toward online fraud for good! This SCARS website and all of our publications (including social media) are maintained by our own staff employees and volunteers to provide you the most up to date information about scams & scammers from around the world. We show you how to avoid them or recover from them. Visit us on social media or the website for more information about scams & scammers, and how to recover from your exoerience.